The following multiple choice questions (MCQ) will help to boost your morale in facing the AP Physics B Exam:

(1) At what angle with respect to the horizontal, does a fish under water see the setting sun?

(a) tan

^{–1}(^{√7}/_{3})^{ }(b) tan^{–1}(^{5}/_{3})^{ }(c) tan^{–1}(^{5}/_{√7})
With reference to the figure, S represents the setting sun from which the ray SAF reaches the fish F after refraction at F. For the fish the ray appears to come from S

_{1}which is the virtual image of the sun. Evidently angle FAN is the*critical angle*(θ_{c}) for the water-air interface. Since n = 1/sinθ_{c}, we have
sinθ

_{c}= 1/n = 1/(4/3) =3/4
[Right angled triangle FAB is drawn side by side with the figure showing the refraction, to show the opposite side of length 3 units and adjacent side of length 4 units. The hypotenuse of this triangle is √7].

The rays coming from the sun make an angle S

_{1}AS = FAB with the horizontal. The angle required in the problem is angle FAB, which is tan^{–1}(^{√7}/_{3}).^{ }
(2) In the adjoining figure, SS is a spherical surface separating two media of refractive indices n

_{1}and n_{2 }where n_{1}**>**n_{2}. C is the centre of curvature of the spherical surface. An observer, keeping his eye beyond C in the medium of refractive index n_{2}views the refracted image of an object AB placed as shown in the medium of refractive index n_{1}. The image will be
(a) real, inverted and magnified

(b) real, upright and diminished

(c) virtual, upright and diminished

(d) virtual, upright and magnified

You can easily solve this problem by ray tracing as shown in the figure.

CN is normal to the spherical surface. A ray BC passing through the centre of curvature C does not suffer any deviation. Another ray BD is deviated at D obeying Snell’s law of refraction,

**n**where θ_{1 }sin θ_{1}= n_{2 }sin θ_{2},_{1}is the angle of incidence BDN and θ_{2}is the angle of refraction EDC. In this question you are asked to find the nature of the image qualitatively and you need not worry about the actual values of θ_{1}and θ_{2}. But you must be careful to draw the refracted ray DE so as to have θ_{2}larger than θ_{1}since n_{1}**>**n_{2}.
The diverging ray DE produced backwards meets the ray BC at M and IM is the

*virtual, upright*and*diminished*image of the object AB. So, option (c) is correct.
Suppose you were asked to calculate the distance of the image and its magnification. In that case, the refractive index values, the radius of curvature of the spherical surface and the distance of the object will be given in the problem. You will have to work out things quantitatively. If you still want to resort to the method of ray tracing,

**. The spherical surface SS is to be first drawn by fitting the radius to the chosen scale. The object AB is to be shown at the given distance (to the scale). After drawing the ray BD you will have to measure the angle of incidence θ***you should draw all distances to a suitable scale*_{1}( angle BAN) and then calculate angle of refraction θ_{2}(angle EDC) using**n**The refracted ray DE is to be_{1 }sin θ_{1}= n_{2 }sin θ_{2}.**drawn so that angle EDC is equal to the calculated value of θ**_{2}.**After completing the ray diagram, you will have to measure the distance of the image (PI). The size of the image (IM) need not be measured since you can calculate magnification (M) using the equation M = s**_{i}/s_{o}.
If a question does not demand you to do things specifically by ray tracing, you can calculate all quantities using the equations we considered in the post dated 30

^{th}December 2007.
Let us modify the above problem to make things quantitative:

In the adjoining figure, SS is a spherical surface separating a transparent medium of refractive index 4/3 from air. C is the centre of curvature of the spherical surface. An observer located in air views the refracted image of an object AB of height 10 cm placed as shown in the medium of refractive index 4/3. If the distance of the object (from the spherical surface) is 3m, calculate the size of the image.

We have

**n**_{2}/s_{i }**–****n**_{1}/s_{o}_{ }= (n_{2 }**–****n**._{1})_{ }/R
Here n

_{1}= 4/3, n_{2}= 1 (air), s_{o}= –3m, R = 2m.
Therefore, 1/s

_{i}– (4/3)/(–3) = [1– (4/3)] /2
The sign of the object distance s

_{o}is*negative*since we have to measure if from P to A,*opposite to*the direction of the incident ray. The sign of R is*positive*since we have to measure it from P to C in the*same direction*as that of the incident ray.
The above equation gives s

_{i}= –18/11 m.
The magnification is M = s

_{i}/s_{o }= (–18/11)/ (–_{ }3) = 18/33 = 0.545
Since the magnification is positive, the image is upright and virtual. We can obtain this information the moment we find that the sign of the image distance (s

_{i}) is negative. [However, in the case of an image formed by*reflection*, the image distance will be negative for*real and inverted*image].
The size of the image = M× size of object = 0.545×10 cm = 5.45 cm.

(3) A straight rod of length very large compared to the focal length ‘f’ of a concave mirror lies along the principal axis of the mirror. The nearer end of the rod is at a distance ‘x’ from the pole of the mirror. If x > f, the length of the image of the rod is

(a) xf/(x– f)

(b) xf/(x+ f)

(c) f

^{2}/(x+f)
(d) f

^{2}/x
(e) f

^{2}/(x–f)
For a spherical mirror we have

**1/f = 1/s**_{o}+ 1/s_{i}.
One end of the rod is far away from the mirror and hence the image of that end must be formed at the focus . [From the above equation, on applying the negative sign for f, you will get s

_{i}= –f, the negative sign indicating that the image of the end is real and on the object side of the mirror].
The image of the near end of the rod will be formed at s

_{i}given by
1/f = 1/x + 1/s

_{i}so that
1/s

_{i}= 1/f – 1/x from which s_{i}= xf/(x –f)
[If you apply the negative signs for f and x, in accordance with the Cartesian sign convention, you will get s

_{i}= –xf/(x –f), the negative sign indicating that the image of the near end of the rod also is real and on the object side of the mirror].
The length of the image is [xf/(x –f)] – f = f

^{2}/(x–f)
We will discuss more questions on geometric optics in the next post.

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